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Early History: 1880's – 1928

 
 

From 1880's to 1928

Written by Rabbi Martin Zielonka on the occasion of Temple's thirtieth anniversary.

 

The story of Temple Mount Sinai dates back forty years...the first official roster of contributors to the Mt. Sinai Association lists thirty-two names, each one contributing one dollar and twenty-five cents each quarter, beginning October, 1887.

Thus the first organization was the "MT. SINAI ASSOCIATION," and the minutes of May 22, 1887, state that there was "no record of a previous meeting kept." Samuel Schutz presided at that meeting, but judging from the fact that the treasurer reported $176.50 in the treasury, the organization must have been functioning for some time. A cemetery had been purchased, for motions were passed "to remove paupers' bodies from our cemetery and to layout the cemetery in lots and plats." And it was further moved "to organize this society into a Benevolent Society."

From these statements it is evident that the original call for organization was a death in the Jewish community and the need of a Jewish cemetery. This need having been met by the purchase of a plot and laying it out into lots, it was decided to make this organization function in a dual nature, as a Cemetery Society and as a Benevolent Society. In the Constitution and By-Laws adopted on August 28, 1887, the "Object" is stated. "Sec. I. Its object and designs are to relieve the sick and succor the poor and needy. Sec. 2. First, by the establishment of a well-regulated system of relief to the poor and needy; second, by keeping and maintaining a cemetery...' Thus a Chevrah Kaddisha was enlarged to a Gemilath Chesed. The first officers of this organization were: president, Isaac Haas; vice-president, Samuel Schutz; secretary, Amzi Berla; treasurer, A. A. Kline; directors, B. F. Levy; A. Goodman; E. Kohlberg. 'These officers instructed the secretary that he "issue a circular letter to non-residents requesting their cooperation with this society" and they decided to meet "every second Sunday of the month."

It might be well to picture El Paso at that time and to note some matters of historic value of an earlier date.

The Jewish settlement of what is now El Paso dates to a period preceding the civil war. El Paso, or Franklin as it was then called, was a trading station on the Chihuahua trail leading from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to Chihuahua, Mexico. Schutz Bros. (Samuel and Joseph) had established a store on that trail and part of the adobe shack that they occupied is still standing on San Francisco Street. Out of forty-four votes cast at the time. On the question of secession from the union; Samuel Schutz and Joseph Schutz cast their ballots against secession and later had to leave the city and Simeon Hart voted in favor of the same. This Simeon Hart built the first flour mill in the southwest. He intermarried and his descendants are lost to Judaism, but the descendants of the Schutz Bros. remained faithful to their Jewish heritage and are factors in the Jewish life of the southwest.

The first train, Southern Pacific, came to El Paso from the west on May 13, 1881, and a few days later the Santa Fe reached the city from the north. Thus El Paso was connected with the west coast and the east coast and thus it began its growth. Preparatory to greeting the railroads, the city decided to establish a permanent form of government. Owen White in "Out of the Desert" tells us, "In 1880 El Paso's city government, which had been allowed to pass away in 1875 because of its uselessness, was brought back to life in the form of a new Mayor and City Council. Accordingly, on account of a petition which was presented to the county court, an election was held on July 30, 1880 with the following results: Solomon Schutz was elected mayor, A. Krakauer, an alderman."

Coming immediately before and after the railroad, new faces had been added to the Jewish citizens-Adolph Krakauer, Kohlberg Bros., Bernard Schuster, Maurice Ullman and I. Haas. These men entered into the life of the community. Owen White says, "Personally it is our opinion that Samuel Schutz built El Paso's first brick building." A few years later Adolph Solomon was elected Mayor of the city and then Adolph Krakauer, but the latter was disqualified because he had not taken out his citizenship papers. Maurice Ullman was instrumental in organizing the first voluntary fire department of the city.

It was a "wild and wooly" community in which these men lived. El Paso was a trading station, the temporary terminal of a transcontinental railroad, the gateway to a foreign country, a city of saloons and gambling houses. It was also a frontier fort and the social life of the city was predominantly military. Open gambling was encouraged, since it "fleeced the strangers of their money and put the same into circulation." It took courage to establish a home in this environment. The homes were adobe shacks with mud floors, sanitary arrangements were the crudest and social life had to be created from within. The newcomers were adventurers with no idea of establishing homes and it. was some time before permanent homes were established. For the time being it was the splendid money making opportunities that drew them; their ambition was to save a competency and then return to "civilization." Many, who came with this idea, remained as permanent residents and reared their families.

Gradually the small band of Jews increased in numbers. The majority of the earlier settlers were of German descent, but there were no national distinctions.

On April 14, 1889, a general meeting of the Mt. Sinai Association for the election of officers was called. The results of the meeting were: J. Calisher, president; Albert Schutz, vice-president; Adolph Solomon, treasurer; A. Berla, secretary and B. Cohen, Paul Isaac and M. Ullman, Directors. At a special meeting on April 21, 1889 the following committees were appointed, on charity: Solomon, Isaac, Ullman; on cemetery: Berla, Schutz, Cohen; on finance: Ullman, Isaac, Schutz.

From this date, the meetings were held at irregular intervals. The community was small, the members met each other daily and whatever business needed attention could be transacted by personal interviews. Thus on July 16, 1893, "secretary read a letter from Mr. A. A. Kline ere his departure from the city, donating $10.00 and paying one year's dues in advance." At the same meeting Amzi Ber1a resigned as secretary and John Steffian was elected in his place.

By October 1895 the "charity fund was deficient" and since there was money in the cemetery fund and in the cemetery sinking fund, a special meeting was called and "after suspending an article of the constitution," the sums from the latter funds were transferred to the charity fund. At that meeting Messrs. M. and A. Krakauer presented a special gift of $50.00 and the following officers were elected: president, J. Calisher; vice-president, I. Haas; treasurer, A. Solomon; secretary, A. A. Kline; directors, N. Diamond, L. Goodman, B. Blumenthal. Evidently the books of the society were in a tangle and "Mr. Kline requested that power be granted him to straighten up the books which had been neglected, to the best of his ability and settle all pending matters appertaining to his office," and at the same time, "full power was granted to the cemetery committee to make such expenses as they deem proper to have cemetery laid out in plots and other improvements necessary."

On September 26, 1897, the secretary reported a membership of 53. But funds evidently were very low for a motion was passed "that president J. Calisher appoint a committee of three to see members paying less than one dollar a month and try to induce them to raise their subscription." This committee consisted of A. Schwartz, H. Krupp, Jr., A. Stolaroff. At the same meeting the "cemetery committee reported having laid out the cemetery in plots, planted trees, and kept same in order at expense of $4.00 for summer months and $3.00 for winter months". The officers elected at that time were: president, E. Kohlberg; vice-president, L. Goodman; treasurer, A. Stolaroff; secretary, Charles Schutz.

During these years the organization had not confined itself to charity or to the cemetery. When the Fall Holy Days came, they met for prayers, but these gatherings did not satisfy them and so they sent to the Hebrew Union College at Cincinnati, Ohio, for a student who could conduct the services and also deliver sermons in the English language. Rabbi Frederick Cohn (now of Omaha, Neb.) came here for two successive years and Rabbi Leo Mannheimer conducted these services another year.

The need of teaching the children the faith of their parents was one of the first problems that was solved. On October 4, 1890, the "El Paso Hebrew Sunday School" was organized and its sessions were held in the County Court House. Mrs. J. Calisher was the first superintendent and Alice Ullman, Mrs. Albert Schutz and Adolph Solomon were the first teachers. Mrs. Calisher was succeeded by Alice Ullman as superintendent and the following were the teachers in the early years: Bertha Krakauer, Amzi Berla and Carl Roeder. Thus for thirty-eight years has a Religious School been conducted where the children could obtain a religious training.

This flame of Jewish responsibility had been smoldering for years. It had burst forth when there was need for a consecrated spot where one of the children of Israel might be laid in eternal rest; it burst forth when the unfortunate appealed for aid to his co-religionists; it burst forth when the growing child needed religious training. But each time, having accomplished its desire, it again smoldered. It took the presence of a strong personality, with splendid powers of leadership and fine training in the traditions of our faith, to kindle that flame into a burning desire to firmly establish the heritage of the past, by giving it form in the traditional Jewish method, a congregation. Such a personality was Dr. Oscar J. Cohen who came to El Paso in 1898 from Mobile, Alabama. He was rabbi of that flourishing congregation, he was much beloved, but his health broke down and he came to El Paso to regain his health. The Jewish citizens realized the possibilities that his presence in their midst presented to them and they immediately planned with him their future.

At a meeting of the Mt. Sinai Association on September 18, 1898, Mr. A.A. Kline, made a motion "that a committee be appointed to amend the constitution and by-laws of the present society with the object for re-organization." This committee consisted of A. A. Kline, A. Stolaroff, A. Solomon, H. Krupp, Jr., and J. Calisher. L. N. Heil then moved "that the five members appointed as a committee on reorganization be instructed to embody in the new organization the same name we bear at present," and "that Dr. Cohen be made advisory member of the committee."

On October 10, 1898, the meeting for the organization of a congregation took place, at the County Court House, with the following present: E. B. Fatman, A. Blumenthal, E. Adler, Wm. Fatman, Sol C. Schutz, S. Aronstein, S. Blumenthal, I. Blum, B. Blumenthal, H. Eichwald, R. Krakauer, G. Newman, L. N. Heil, A. Stolaroff, A. Kline, J. Calisher, A. Solomon, R. Sprinz, F. Kierski, E. Kohlberg, A. J. Schutz, and the following officers and trustees were elected: president, A. Solomon; vice-president, J. Calisher; treasurer, E. Kohlberg; secretary, Chas. Schutz. Trustees D. Klein, L. N. Heil, Wm. Fatman. At this meeting A. A. Kline, Harris Krupp, A. Schwartz, A. Solomon and D. Klein were appointed a committee "to have members raise their subscriptions" and "to see Dr. Cohen and ascertain what he will officiate for, for the ensuing year," and the committee on subscriptions was "authorized to issue a circular letter to our co-religionists in the immediate surrounding country asking them to join us in forming a Jewish congregation in this city."

At the same meeting Dr. Oscar J. Cohen was elected rabbi. Taxes and assessments for the support of the congregation were to begin on October 1, 1898 and it was  "moved that first steps to be taken toward raising the money necessary for building a synagogue be left to the Board of Trustees.'

But the road to progress was not a smooth one. 'There was a splendid response to the call for reorganization. The question not yet answered was, were they ready and willing, nay able, to maintain the same ~ On October II, 1898, at the El Paso Club, "a meeting of the Trustees was held for the purpose of revising the Classification list," and on November 10, 1898, at the residence of A. Solomon, "this meeting was called for the purpose of further revising the classification list and to consider the constitution and by-laws." In the meantime Chopin Hall on Myrtle Avenue was chosen for a temporary place of worship and "Wm. Fatman was instructed to make arrangements for same with Mrs. Beall for Friday nights."

On January 5, 1899, president Solomon appointed the following committee to solicit subscriptions from non-members: J. Calisher, Wm. Fatman and E. Kohlberg. Evidently there was already a committee asking subscriptions from the members for the minutes of the meeting of February 2, 1899, read, "The success of Messrs. A. Solomon and B. Blumenthal in receiving and encouraging subscriptions from members and nonmembers alike towards the building fund led after extended and thorough deliberations that it was moved and seconded to secure options on different pieces of property of two lots or more in the northern part of the city." At that time there was no church structure in the northern part, (or as it is called "above the tracks") and the temple pioneered in what later became the residence section of the city.

The original subscription list totaled three thousand three hundred and fifty dollars ($3350.00) of which the members subscribed ($1760.00) seventeen hundred and sixty dollars and the Christian community ($1590.00) fifteen hundred and ninety dollars. A splendid example of the fine spirit of fellowship that prevailed and still prevails in El Paso. Of the original 32 subscribers, 15 are still with us: B. BlumenthaI, S. Aronstein, E. Moye, A. Schwartz, B. Levy, D. Klein, A. Stolaroff, A. A. Kline, A. J. Schutz, H. Krupp, J. Stolaroff, A. Wolff, A. Mathias, Simon Picard and Mrs. W. J. Harris.

At the first annual meeting of the congregation" on March 10, 1899, Dr. Cohen reported having 32 children in the Sabbath School "of whom eight were being prepared for the Rite of Confirmation," and furthermore "that Chopin Hall, at which place the inaugural services were held, was found to be very uncomfortable. That the efforts of himself and others to find different quarters were in vain, that he was requested to ask the minister of the Presbyterians for the use of the Church, that same was offered without rental and that services have been held there since. "

How humble was the beginning may be seen from this statement, "The choir committee reported having engaged a choir of four at one dollar each for every performance, making a total of four dollars for Friday evening services and one dollar for Saturday evenings."

The success of the committees on subscriptions encouraged the Board of Trustees to consider the building of a synagogue. But experience had taught them caution and "the proposed synagogue should not cost more than $5000.00 and the amount of indebtedness not to exceed $2000." Therefore on April 5, 1899, the architects were asked "to submit rough sketch for a synagogue to Dr. Cohen, building to have a seating capacity of 300.

At the annual meeting of the congregation on April 13, 1902, Rabbi Zielonka urged affiliation with the Union of American Hebrew Congregation with the result that "the recommendation of Rabbi Zielonka as to joining the Union of American Hebrew Congregations be postponed until the financial condition of the congregation better when we have a synagogue". That El Paso felt itself a part of the larger household of Israel and did not desire to remain an isolated Jewish community is evidenced by the fact that at this meeting it was decided to send, In the name of the congregation, a telegram to Isaac M. Wise of Cincinnati, in honor of his eightieth birthday celebration.

On April 19, 1899, B. Blumenthal moved "that Mr. E. Krause's plan be adopted and his services be engaged to draw up plans and specifications and to superintend the construction of the Synagogue, the cost of the building not to exceed $5500.00 and in the event that the contractor's bids should be in excess of this amount, Mr. Krause must arrange his plans so that the contractors can reduce their bids within this amount.

The confirmation class that Dr. Cohen had prepared was now ready to take its solemn vows and so the Knights of Pythias Hall was engaged for Shevuoth and the Ladies Aid Society was requested to decorate the hall on this occasion. This class consisted of the following members: Tillie Cohen, Belle C. Heil, Edgar Kayser, Aimee Schloss, Felix Schutz and Willie Schutz.

In the meantime the congregation had bought two lots on the southeast corner of Oregon and Idaho streets (now Yandell Boulevard) and the first temple was erected on this site.

On May 16, 1899, the bids for the contemplated building were opened and the lowest bid was $5800.00. At a special meeting on May 18, 1899, it was "moved by S. Aronstein that contract for the erection of the synagogue be awarded to Stewart and Crawford at $5800.00 without additional cost for Leibman Brick and that the building sub-committee be empowered to sign and close contract at this price."

Contract was closed immediately for on June 15, 1899, it was decided "that corner stone should be laid Sunday, Jun' 18, 1899, if possible, and that Dr. Cohen be empowered to make all necessary arrangements for laying same: also to request the Masonic Lodge to assist in the ceremony." For some reason that the records do not disclose there was an unavoidable delay and the corner stone was laid on Tuesday, June 20, 1899.

On July 31, 1899, a Mason and Hamlin Liszt Organ was purchased for $318.75 and it was moved at this meeting that the dedication services be held on Sunday, September 3, 1899, at 4 P. M. Before the dedication of the temple and before seats were assigned to the members, "Pew D was set aside for the ensuing year for the rabbi's family without charge."

At the time of the dedication Adolph Krakauer was president; Jacob Calisher, vice-president; S. Aronstein, treasurer; Charles Schutz, secretary, and B. Blumenthal, William. Fatman, Adolph Solomon and A. Stolaroff.  The Ladies committee on arrangements was: Mrs. J. Calisher. Mrs. L. N. Heil and Mrs. Albert Schutz.

Among these who participated in the dedication services might be mentioned Rev. A. M. Lumpkin, pastor of the First M. E. Church, who read from scriptures; Rev. H. W. Moore, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, who delivered the Fellowship address; the Rev. M. Cabell Martin, Rector of St. Clement's Episcopal Church, who gave the benediction. Annie Stolaroff presented the key to the temple: Belle C. Heil presented a Bible in behalf of the confirmation class and these were responded to by Mr. A. Krakauer, while Mr. A. A. Kline kindled the perpetual light.

Thus, in September 1899, the religious life of the community was definitely centered about a synagogue. But the task was not an easy one. The community was small and comparatively poor; the people had not learned their responsibility for maintaining a Jewish institution. Thus, on October 10, 1899, a special meeting was called "for the purpose of discussing the financial condition of the congregation and also what action should be taken against those members who had not purchased seats." At that meeting the following monthly budget was adopted: Rabbi $150.00; Interest $18.00; Janitor $7.00; Light $6.00; Fuel $3.00; Insurance $2.00; Cemetery $4.00; Collections $5.00; Charity $20.00; Choir $25.00; a total of $240.00. And this modest budget was raised with great difficulty during the first years because only 43 had signed for annual subscriptions; the individual subscriptions ranged from $12 to $60 a year and the total was $1884.00. But with the assistance of the Ladies Temple Aid they felt sure they could meet their obligations. As early as April 19, 1899, the secretary was.'instructed to address a letter to the president of the Ladies Temple Aid Society asking her to appoint a committee of two to confer with the trustees regarding the funds they have collected and what their intentions are concerning the same." With the aid of the good ladies the obligations of the first years were met and met promptly.

And then when progress seemed at hand a sudden shadow was cast over the community. On May 17,1900, the Board of Trustees received a letter from Dr. Oscar J. Cohen, resigning as rabbi, to take effect June 15, 1900. The cause for this sudden action is best left unrecorded. Suffice it to say that the fault lay not with Dr. Cohen, (who was elected to the larger pulpit at Dallas, Texas, and where he died after a very short service) nor was the blame to be placed against the congregation. It was just one of those unfortunate incidents that engendered great warmth, but gave very little light. June 13, 1900, the president was authorized to acknowledge the resignation and to thank Dr. Cohen for his past efforts in behalf of the congregation.

At the annual meeting of March 1900, Mr. J. Calisher was elected president and Mr. B. Blumenthal as vice-president and, the former refused to accept the election the Board elected the latter to serve for that year and it devolved upon them to select a successor to Dr. Cohen. On August 12, 1900, Rabbi Martin Zielonka, a graduate of the Hebrew Union College and the University of Cincinnati and at that time officiating at Waco, Texas, was elected rabbi for two years. Dr. I. M. Wise, president of the Hebrew Union College, died the previous March and when a special Isaac M. Wise Memorial Fund was established the congregation on March 19, 1901, voted a special donation of $25.00. At the regular annual meeting, which had been changed to April, on April 14, 1904, a vote of thanks was extended to the ladies of the Ladies Temple Aid Society for their zeal and work during the past year in aiding to raise money to pay off the indebtedness of the Temple." This is only one of a series of such resolutions, passed almost annually, testifying to the great interest the ladies took in the temple work.

From this point on the writer feels a delicacy in jotting down the progress of the congregation. He has been the rabbi throughout these years and he has been responsible for its development. However, he shall try to be as objective as possible, leaving it to some future historian to check his conclusions and to place praise and blame as it may appear to him with a finer perspective.

The attitude of the congregation toward those who refused to share its responsibilities as well as to those who might be willing to do so, but could not' afford it, is illustrated by the following resolution adopted on August 28, 1901, "Moved and carried that resident Israelites who are not able to pay, have seats free and those who are able to pay, have to become members before they can get seats." This has become the traditional policy of the congregation. It does not sell seats for the Holy Days; it allows no Jew, who can afford it, to satisfy his conscience in this way; every member must be a seat holder and every seat holder must be a member.  At the annual meeting of the congregation oh April 13, 1902, Rabbi Zielonka urged affiliation with the Union of American Hebrew Congregation with the result that "the recommendation of Rabbi Zielonka as to joining the Union of American Hebrew Congregations be postponed until the financial condition of the congregation

The growth of the Jewish community and with it the growth of the congregation forced some of the leaders to consider their cemetery. They had purchased a very small plot and ground surrounding this plot was being preempted by other organizations for burial purposes, so at a special meeting of the congregation on May 13, 1903, a resolution was passed "that the congregation empower the Board of Trustees to buy from J. J. Mundyone acre of ground (adjacent to present cemetery for the sum of $150.00 on such terms as they deem proper."

The question for relief for the worthy poor had always been one in which the members were interested. The very first budget of the congregation set aside the sum of $20.00 a month for this purpose. There was no need for a special organization. There was only one congregation and almost every Jew in the community belonged to the congregation. But the proper dispensing of the fund often was a problem and so, at the annual meeting of the congregation on April 9, 1905, the following resolution was passed that "the dispensation of charity be left in the hands of Rabbi Zielonka and the Board of Trustees were instructed to act accordingly." This system prevailed until the community grew larger and an orthodox congregation, B'nai Zion, was established. Then it became necessary to separate the charity work and place it in charge of separate organization (El Paso Jewish Relief Society) so that the burden or duty might be more equitably distributed.

At the annual meeting on April 8, 1906, the congregation became affiliated with the National Conference of Jewish Charities and also joined the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

In his annual message to the congregation on April 14, 1907, Rabbi Zielonka made three recommendations: first, that the congregation build a parsonage; second, that the Religious School facilities be enlarged; third, "the holding of a Memorial service on the Sunday between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur at the cemetery." The first two were postponed for lack of funds but were later carried out; the third one was adopted and since then this service has become a fixed service of the congregation. Perhaps a word as to the reason for this recommendation. El Paso is situated in a desert region; it is difficult to beautify the grounds because water is not abundant. And yet we desire to beautify the last resting place of our dear ones! But the only time that the people went to the cemetery as a group was to attend a funeral. Then we noticed haw dismal was this last resting place, but we soon forgot it, only to renew the complaints, months later when we came to lay another dear one to rest. If the people would come to the cemetery at some other time and note this condition, they might decide to change matters and raise a fund sufficient to make the necessary improvements. Thus this service was instituted and from that time our cemetery was gradually improved until today it is a real oasis in the wilderness.

The other recommendations were placed in force much sooner than many considered possible. An opportunity was presented of purchasing the cottage next door to the temple at a very reasonable figure. On May 5, 1907, "a committee was appointed for the purpose of receiving an option on the property adjoining the temple" and at a special meeting of .the congregation on May 17, 1907, called for this purpose it was decided "that the congregation acquire by purchase from Sidney Ullman, present owner, lot13 of block 23 of Hart's survey No.9, El Paso, Texas, for the sum of $4500.00" and on May 29, 1907, the purchase was completed. This home was then renovated and became the home of the rabbi for many years.

At the same time "The Chairman of the Committee on Property was instructed to ascertain from an architect what improvement could be made to enlarge the Sunday School room." Action on this was deferred for some time, though the crowded condition of the religious school made efficient work difficult.

At this time the Presbyterian Church had sold its home and was building a new edifice. It gave the temple an opportunity to repay the courtesy that had been extended at the time of organization and on June 5, 1907, "the president was authorized to in. form the Presbyterian Church that they could have the temple for the time asked."

A national effort to divert Jewish immigrants to the west, known as the Galveston movement, brought many new comers to El Paso. A new problem of adjustment was at band and, on August 22, 1907, it was decided "that Sunday School rooms be granted Rabbi Zielonka for the coming winter to teach Jewish young men, further that the charity committee be empowered to act on the immigration question."

At the annual meeting on April 12, 1908, it was decided to erect a Memorial Tab. let in the vestry of the temple and so the Board of Trustees at its meeting on May 7, 1908, passed the following resolution:

"It is resolved that a Memorial tablet is hereby established.

"It shall be the privilege of the Board of Trustees to accept from any individual a sum of money not less than one hundred dollars for the purpose of having inscribed on said tablet the name of any individual.

"It shall also be the privilege of the Board of Trustees to have inscribed on the Memorial Tablet the name of any individual who shall by his or her will give the congregation the sum of not less than one hundred dollars.

"The respective names of those who appear on the Memorial Tablet shall annually be mentioned at the Kaddish service on the Friday night succeeding the respective anniversaries of their death."

The first name to be placed on this Tablet was that of Adolph Solomon, the first president. Since then the names of many pioneers have been inscribed there and the original Tablet was taken from the old temple to the new one.

In 1908, Mr. A. Krakauer and family had spent some time in Europe and while visiting various communities, he came across an old "Ner Tomid," a Perpetual Lamp that had burned in some synagogue, but had been so damaged that it could not retain the necessary oil. He purchased the same, brought it with him and presented it to the temple. An electric light was installed in the same and it was placed before the ark of the old building and removed to the new one when same was built. On December 7, 1908, "on motion of the president a rising vote of thanks was extended to Mr. A. Krakauer for presenting a Perpetual Lamp to the congregation."

On December 28, 1908, Mr. I. Baas, who had been active in congregational matters from the very beginning and who had served faithfully as secretary for many years, resigned and A. S. Jacobs was elected to the office. At the end 6f the final minutes Mr. Haas writes "Good-bye." He was an efficient servant of the community and he had a right to ask the younger generation to assume the burdens of service and leadership.

Adjacent to the city of El Paso is Ft. Bliss, one of the large Government posts where many soldiers ire stationed and among these there is usually a fair proportion of Jewish youth. These soldiers have always been the special care of the El Paso Community. They are invited to religious services and home hospitality is accorded them on the Holy Days. The records of the congregation reveal this interest. For instance on September 12, 1910, it was "moved that secretary mail to Col. A. C. Sharp, commanding officer of Ft. Bliss, an invitation to all Jewish boys to attend Holy Day services," and on August 28, 1911, the secretary was instructed to send the usual notice to commanding officer of Ft. Bliss inviting Jewish members of his command to the temple.

Finally on April 10, 1910, at the annual meeting of the congregation "the incoming Board of Trustees (be) authorized to borrow the necessary amount, not to exceed $1000.00 with which to make necessary alteration to increase space in Sunday School rooms." The congregation and the school were increasing rapidly. The need of a new building was apparent but the time for same was not yet ripe; but the school facilities could not be delayed and so three roams and an office for the rabbi were added to the school building. It was a makeshift arrangement, but it was the best that could be done at that time.

One of the most ardent workers in the Religious School was Mrs. Hermina Ordenstein. At the annual meeting in April 1911, a special resolution of thanks was extended to her and in the following year it was decided "that a certain sum be set aside each year for a prize and this be awarded to that pupil in the school whose work is the best". This was the only way in which faithful services could be rewarded, for the teachers were all volunteers and up to the present time (1928) this work has been a volunteer task. Through the energy and faithful cooperation at the Temple Sisterhood, this system will be changed next year and we will remunerate the teachers for their time.

Again the cemetery occupied the attention of the officers. The neighboring cemeteries had enlarged their holdings further to the front towards what was the driveway. In order to protect our interests in this entrance it was necessary to purchase an additional strip. Thus, on June 12, 1912, Mr. B. Blumenthal, chairman of the Cemetery Committee, reported the purchase of the ground adjacent to the present cemetery, said plot containing I 724-1000 acres for $1034.40, but that the transaction had not been closed for he was waiting for the authorization 0f the Board, and this authority was granted to him at that time.

On February 13, 1913, at a regular meeting of the Board of Trustees "it was moved, seconded and carried that the name of Dr. Oscar J. Cohen, our first Rabbi, be placed upon the Memorial Tablet." Thus an incident in congregational life was closed and the congregation honored itself in honoring the memory of its spiritual leader, the man who rallied the forces about him and created the congregation.

The increased capacity of the Sunday School rooms did not meet the ever increasing demand far more space, and the temple auditorium could not accommodate those who sought membership in the organization. Year after year the rabbi recommended larger facilities, facilities that would meet not only the increasing demand for larger quarters but also give ample room for demonstrating the social interpretation of religion. He wanted an "Institutional Building" where youth as well as age could be served. Finally president Kline made it part of his annual report and so at a special meeting of the Board of Trustees on October 14, 1913, the following resolution was adopted: -

Whereas, the main building of our Temple is too small to seat the increasing membership and at present time leaves no room for visitors and strangers, to say nothing of the natural increase we have a right to expect each year, and

Whereas, the Sabbath School building though increased to double its former capacity in the past four years is again too small to meet the demands of a larger enrollment, and

Whereas, neither the main building nor the Sabbath School rooms are so arranged as to meet the requirements of a modern progressive congregation therefore be it

Resolved by the Board of Trustees that some action is urgently needed to meet our present necessities and be it further

Resolved that, a committee is hereby appointed and authorized to consider the following:

1.      Possibilities of selling present site and building elsewhere.

2.      The cost of such site as the committee deems properly located to meet the present and future needs of this congregation.

3.      The enlargement of the present temple and the building of a Sabbath School and Social Center on the present site.

Be it further resolved that this committee present a report in writing to cover each of the above points to the Board of Trustees in sixty days."

The special committees appointed to consider this matter consisted of A. Schwartz, B. Blumenthal, A. H. Goldstein, and Rabbi Zielonka.

At the meeting on April 12, 1914, it was "moved and seconded and carried that a special meeting be called on Thursday and a committee of three be appointed to report on sites for the building of a new temple and report on Thursday, April 16, 1914." This special committee consisted of M. Zielonka, Sol I. Berg, and A. Schwartz. On the date suggested the meeting was held and on recommendation of the committee it was "moved and seconded that lots 18-19-20-Block 45 (Montana and Oregon Sts.) now property of W. J. Harris be purchased and it was unanimously carried." At the same time a special committee on Ways and Means consisting of A. A. Kline, M. Schwartz, and Sol I. Berg was appointed to arrange for the proper financing of the new project.

This activity for a new house of worship had received a special impetus. When Mrs. Max Krakauer died on March 18, 1911, her daughter Mrs. Gus Zork (Bertha Krakauer) had offered the congregation a check for three thousand dollars in memory of her mother and her father, who had died on November 18, 1908. This sum was to be used for the cemetery. But when the need for more adequate temple facilities became pressing then she agreed to give this sum to the temple building fund, feeling that this would stimulate interest in the need of a house of worship and a school for the living. In this, Mrs. Zork was not mistaken and her initial gift induced active work along these lines.

The purchase of a site for a new temple did not mean the immediate erection of the same. The members responded liberally to the appeal for funds, but definite progress depended on the sale of the old property.

Just before the new activity Mr. A. Krakauer, who was president when the first temple was dedicated, died suddenly and it seems very appropriate that the first volume of the records of the Board of Trustees closes with resolutions passed on January 26, 1914, in honor of the memory of Adolph Krakauer.

At this time civil war broke out in Mexico. Many refugees came to El Paso, some of them to make their homes; others to go to other parts of the United States. Life was not safe in the Northern part of that country and so the private schools moved to more secure sections. Thus one of these schools moved to El Paso and on January 5, 1914, it was "moved and seconded that permission for school purposes be granted Mrs. Hagen from 9 to I except Saturdays and Sundays, charges not to exceed $20.00 a month including lights and heat and the front room is designated for such use." Thus again did the temple exemplify its broad spirit of tolerance.

On May 12, 1914, a building committee consisting of the following members was appointed: A. Schwartz, B. Blumenthal, J. Zelman, M. Zielonka, A. A. Kline, A. H. Goldstein, Victor Carrusso, Sol I. Berg. This committee engaged Trost and Trost as architects for the new building and it decided definitely that the new building was to meet the need and demands of the younger generation, that, while making ample pro- vision for religious services and religious instruction, the building should also contain a gymnasium, a stage with equipment for presenting plays, shower baths, a billiard room, a library, a moving picture booth, ample kitchen facilities for congregational gathering and social halls for dances and entertainments. These, together with offices for the rabbi and assistant secretary formed the first Institutional Synagogue west of the Mississippi River and one of the first fully equipped buildings in the United States.

The sale of the old temple on June 5, 1916, made possible the carrying out of this project in full. The new building had been started, the contract for same was given to Stanley Bevan at his bid of approximately $50,000.00. Robert Krakauer, son of Adolph Krakauer, had been added to the building committee and elected chairman, while R. Weinstein acted as secretary to that committee. The other members of the committee were B. Blumenthal, treasurer; Martin Zielonka, J. Zelman, D. Klein, A. A. Kline, A. H. Goldstein, and Sol I. Berg.

With simple ceremonies the corner stone was laid on Sunday, May 21, 1916, at 4 P.M. Rabbi Zielonka delivered the opening and the closing prayers, as well as the main address; Robert Krakauer delivered an address and Mr. A. A. Kline deposited the copper box in the corner stone. There was a unique feature to this event. The corner stone of the old temple had been removed and placed in position under the new corner stone, thus symbolizing for the temple its definite purpose of continuing to build the new, upon the corner stone of the older faith.

Thus during the summer of 1916, Temple Mt. Sinai was without a home, and at no time in its history was a home more needed than just then. American troops had been concentrated on the border for any possible emergency with Mexico. Fully 50,000 were stationed at El Paso and of these more than one thousand were Jews. How to meet the situation was a problem. These young men from Jewish homes were entitled to Jewish service and a place of meeting, but the temple had no home. Rabbi Zielonka made every effort to receive the cooperation of prominent Jews in those states from which the militia came, but there was no response. The incidental expenses for caring for these men, even in a perfunctory way, was more than the community could bear, especially since they had mortgaged, even the future, to erect a new temple. At a meeting of the Board of Trustees held August I, 1916, "Rabbi Zielonka offered on behalf of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations $100.00 monthly as a contribution, for social work among the Jewish soldiers now stationed at El Paso." This offer was accepted by the Board and upon motion the chair was authorized to appoint a committee for furtherance of this object. The committee was: Martin Zielonka, chairman; Karl Blumenthal, Manuel Schwartz, Sol I. Berg, David Klein and E. P. Lerner.

The reason for the above action was the failure to cooperate in this work, by the various organizations that had been appealed to. The money came in handy, because it made possible the opening of a downtown Club Room (West San Antonio and Kansas Sts.) and placing this in charge of a paid secretary. This was the first downtown club for soldiers in the United States and the Knights of Columbus and the YMCA. followed this example and continued it when we entered the World War. Later, the Y. M. H. A. tried to take over this work and to ride in on the tide of favor that forced the Y. M. C. A. to undertake the task. But it was too late. The Union of American Hebrew Congregations and the B'nai B'rith had already assumed the obligation in various parts of the country and so it was necessary to create a new organization, The Jewish Welfare Board, which united all elements in performing a patriotic task.

This experience in soldier work brought about the following action on February 13, 191 7, " A motion was made and carried that Rabbi Martin Zielonka be sent as a delegate of this congregation to the Annual meeting of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations to be held in Baltimore." The reason for this action was the hope that the Union would inaugurate a movement for Jewish Chaplains and Jewish welfare work in the army. Rabbi Zielonka presented a resolution to this effect, also signed by Max Heller and Stephen S. Wise. This resolution was reported unfavorable by the committee and the one who spoke against it was Harry Cutler, who later became president of the Jewish Welfare Board. The time was not ripe far an activity that was deemed essential in a few years, but the initial work along these lines originated in El Paso.

In order to meet the demands that the large soldier congregation imposed upon the local community, work on the temple was rushed and the main auditorium of the temple was completed for the Fall Holy Day services in 1916. Dedication of the temple took place on December 8, 9, 10, 1916, after the building had been completed and the furniture installed. Following the dedication on December 11, 1916, El Paso Lodge I. 0. B. B. held a special service.

On Friday night, December 8, 1916, at 7: 30 the temple was dedicated. Mr. Robert Krakauer, chairman of the building committee, presented the keys of the same to Mr. A. A. Kline, president of the congregation, who accepted the same in the name of the congregation. Rabbi M. Faber, of Tyler, Texas, delivered the consecration prayer; Rabbi George Fox read the Scriptures; Rabbi Zielonka delivered the Consecration Sermon and Rabbi Max Heller of New Orleans, La., delivered the Dedication Sermon. The Temple' with a seating capacity of 750, compared to 250 in the old building, was packed to the doors. The community joined with the members in this celebration. The celebration continued on Saturday morning when Scriptures were read by Rabbi Faber, the sermon delivered by Rabbi Moise Bergman of Albuquerque, N. Mex., and the closing prayer given by Rabbi George Fox. The celebration reached its climax at the "Felicitation Service" on Sunday afternoon at 4 P. M. when Rabbi Bergman delivered the invocation, A. A. Kline, president of the congregation, welcomed the audience; Rev. Perry Rice, of the Christian Church, brought greetings from the Christian Churches of the city; Chaplain John T. Axton, Chaplain 2Oth Infantry U. S. A., brought greetings from the army and Rabbi Heller responded in behalf of all the greetings. It was a service that will linger long in the memory of the members of, Temple Mt. Sinai.

Following this service the Sisterhood served its first congregational dinner in the gymnasium. The spirit of felicitation was supreme; the members felt that they had built well and that a new era was open for congregational and communal endeavor.

But this building was not complete. It needed the Free Will Offerings of the members to add the touch of beauty and make it a true home. Among the donations given at this time were: Pulpit furniture by Mrs. A. Krakauer: white draperies for the Ark by Mrs. J. Zelman; red draperies for the Ark by Mrs. H. Ordenstein; Menorahs for the pulpit, Rabbi and Mrs. Martin Zielonka; a Pulpit Bible by Mr. and Mrs. A. A. Kline; a beautiful Art Glass Bawl for the center lights, by Mrs. Chas. Levy and Mr. Karl Goodman; a pool table for the billiard room by Mr. and Mrs. G. Zork: and Art Glass for the front doors by Mr. A. Schwartz. Since then the various openings have been filled with Art Glass, the same being donated by Mrs. G. Zork; Mrs. J. Calisher; Mr. A. Schwartz; Mr. Haymon Krupp; Mrs. A. Krakauer; Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Schwartz and the Temple Sisterhood.

It may be of interest to note the method of financing the yearly budget. In the first place the members are asked to contribute "every man according to his ability" and then each one is asked to take as many seats as he needs for himself and family. These seats are not sold; they have not been purchased at auction; no member has any property interests in the house of God. Here all are equal and choice of seats does not depend upon the size of the annual contribution. All seats are only five dollars a year, payable quarterly. With this small sum it is possible to get ample seatings for the members of the family. While this is not the "free-seatings" of some synagogues it approximates the same; there is no rich section, no middle class section, no poor section; and yet each one can occupy his favorite seat, just as they do in their homes. The method has proven a success, though it may not be the method adopted in other congregations.

The small organ that had been used in the old building was used for the opening services of the new one. But it did not satisfy. A beautiful auditorium demanded a beautiful organ and so on February 27, 1917, it was "moved, seconded and carried that the congregation through its president and secretary enter into a contract with the Mueller Organ Company for the purchase of an organ as per specification," and a three manual, thirty-two stop organ was installed in time for the Fall Holy days.

The work of the temple increased so that it became necessary to have a full time secretary. Mr. H. Blume was elected to fill this office on April II, 1918, and the position is now filled by Mr. A. A. Barnett.

In order to bring to the members the message and the work of the congregation, on September 4, 1917 "it was moved, seconded and duly carried that in accordance with the recommendation of the Rabbi that he be empowered to get out a monthly publication for ten months to bring before the congregation such matters as in his opinion would be of interest." This is the beginning of the "TEMPLE TIDINGS," which has been the official organ of the congregation since that time. At the same time it was "moved, seconded and duly carried that all members be exempted from payment of dues and pew rent while serving in the U. S. Army, navy or any part of the military branch of the U. S. government." In the World War the Temple was adequately represented and a list of those who participated is found on another page. Through the goodness of God, all of them returned to the community in health.

In October 1918, the Union of American Hebrew Congregation made a national appeal for additional funds. Rabbi Zielonka was asked to tour the state of Texas and since this required approximately one month, Rabbi A. Holtzberg, was sent to El Paso by the organization to supply the pulpit.

The temple structure being completed the congregation again considered the question of a parsonage. On June 16, 1921, the committee recommended the purchase of lots on the corner of Fewel and West Yandell Boulevard and on September 17, i922, these lots were purchased and the Board of Trustees were instructed "to make additional arrangements for financing and erection of Parsonage." On September 30, 1922, a special Building Committee for Parsonage, consisting of A. Schwartz, A. H. Galdstein and Haymon Krupp was appointed and they performed their task so well that the parsonage, one of the most complete homes in El Paso, was accepted from the con- tractors in July 1923.

On November 11, 1921, the Temple held a joint Armistice Day service with the Congregational Church and at that service resolutions for Universal Peace were unanimously carried.

On November 18, 1921, a special committee consisting of A. Schwartz, S. Blumenthal, C. Given, was appointed to make arrangements for a special service to commemorate the fifth anniversary of the dedication of the temple.

The committee was fortunate enough to bring to this celebration Dr. Edward N. Calish, of Richmond, Va., and president of the Central Conference of American Rabbis, whose genial personality and splendid messages are still remembered.

On March 25, 1923, a special committee was appointed to arrange for the silver jubilee of the granting of the charter. The celebration took place on October 12, 13, 14, 1923, and our guest speaker was the beloved rabbi of Temple Emanuel of Dallas, Texas, Rabbi David Lefkowitz. A special program was arranged with introductory remarks by the president, Mr. Harold Potash, and with addresses by Rabbi Zielonka and Rabbi Lefkowitz. On Saturday morning, a special dedication service took place, when the four Art Glass windows at the entrance, donated by the Temple Sisterhood in honor of the silver jubilee, were formally received. This was another example of splendid cooperation with and consideration for the congregation displayed by this organization. Each one entering the temple is now greeted by the Hebrew inscription in these windows, "Boruch Habbo Beshem Adonoi," "Blessed is he that cometh in the name of God."

The celebration was continued at a congregational dinner sponsored by the Temple Brotherhood and served by the Temple Sisterhood on Sunday evening, at 6:30 P.M. The president of the Brotherhood, Mr. Luis Horwitz, was toastmaster and responses were made by the past presidents, B. Blumenthal, Gus Zork, and Harold Potash. Greetings were brought from the sister congregation, B'nai Zion, by its president, Max Borchow; from the Sisterhood by Mrs. G. Zork; from the Ladies Relief Society by Mrs. F. Zlabovsky; from the Council of Jewish Women by Mrs. Leon Rosenfield; from the B'nai B'rith by Joe Merkin and from the Junior Council by Miss Potash. It was one of the largest gatherings of Temple members up to that time.

In arranging the silver jubilee, the congregation honored itself by electing Mrs. A. Krakauer to honorary membership for life; the reason as stated in the minutes were ; "that this action is prompted by the splendid liberality of Mrs. Krakauer to this temple and to all Jewish causes and further in an effort by the Board of Trustees to perpetuate the memory of her husband, Adolph Krakauer, who was one of the first presidents of the organization and active in its affairs up to the time of his death; also in memory of her son, Robert Krakauer, who was chairman of the Building Committee that erected this beautiful edifice."

On May 6, 1923, through the courtesy of Trinity Methodist Church, the temple broadcasted a complete Friday evening service and responses to this service were received from many distant points. The Board of Trustees is on record as favoring the broadcasting of services. Due to the fact that the local public broadcasting station has discontinued, this service could not be carried out, but it is the hope of the congregation that before long Temple Mt. Sinai will be on the air regularly.

On January 14, 1924, Mr. Gustave Zork, who has served as president for several years, was called to his eternal rest, and on January 20, 1924, the Board passed suit- able resolutions. His wife, who had always taken an active interest in the Temple, whose initial gift made the temple possible and whose work as president of the Temple Sisterhood helped carry through many enterprises, showed her special interest by presenting to the congregation the ornaments for a large Torah, on September 28, 1924, and a piano, for the religious school, on June 20, 1926. The silver ornaments for a small Torah were presented to the temple by Mr. and Mrs. Max Stone in 1926.

In 1922, the rabbi presented the need of a "Perpetual Care Fund," for our cemetery. Some of our pioneers were passing on, their children were scattered in other parts of the country, or changing circumstances had reduced their possibility of carrying on as in previous years. The members agreed to the need, but like every other movement, action was slow. In May 1925, the president appointed a committee for the purpose of determining ways and means for the establishment and support of a Perpetual Care Fund for the cemetery. This committee gathered data, but did not reach any definite conclusions.

In a desire to stimulate some action along these lines, Mr. A. Schwartz, president of the congregation, offered to give $2500.00 to start the fund. This offer was in connection with an offer of a like amount to wipe out all indebtedness of the congregation in honor of the tenth anniversary of the dedication of the temple. As the record of the Board of Trustees of April 28, 1926, reads: "it was recommended that a committee of five be appointed to be known as the Perpetual Care Committee of the Cemetery. Mr. A. Schwartz then outlined a campaign, which has been under way for several weeks, for the purpose of raising sufficient funds by voluntary subscriptions of the members to retire the entire indebtedness of $23,000.00 now owing the Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Co., on the Temple building and the parsonage and $2,500.00 to begin the Perpetual Care Fund. He reported that approximately $23,000.00 had been subscribed.

Special thanks are due to a committee of three composed of Maurice Schwartz, Ben Swatt and Harold Potash, together with their co-workers for raising this fund and to A. Schwartz and Haymon Krupp for their liberality which made the success possible. When there was some doubt about raising the full amount, A. Schwartz transferred the extra $2,500.00 to this fund and so the celebration on December 10, 11, 12, 1926, had special significance.

The special guest for the occasion was Dr. Julian Morgenstern, president of the Hebrew Union College at Cincinnati, Ohio, who delivered an address on each day of the celebration. At the Friday night services, greetings were brought by Dr. Joseph Roth, rabbi of B'nai Zion Congregation. On Sunday evening a Congregational Dinner prepared by the Temple Sisterhood was served in the gymnasium. Mr. A. S. Jacobs acted as toastmaster; greetings were brought from all the organizations that meet in the building and the spirit of rejoicing reached its height, when Mr. A. Schwartz and Mr. Haymon Krupp, jointly reciting the "Se'he'ha-yo-nu", lit a match and applied same to the mortgages and other evidences of indebtedness thus declaring that ten years after the temple was dedicated and three years after the parsonage had been built, these were now the property of the Jewish community without a cent of indebtedness. Truly a remarkable record when we consider that in 1899 they could raise hardly two thousand dollars for maintenance and instructed the building committee to assume an indebtedness of not more than $3000.00; while in 1926, it had met an ever increasing budget and owned, debt free, property that is conservatively valued at one hundred and fifty thousand dollars.

In May, 1927, Mr. A. Schwartz, president of the congregation, while attending the closing exercises of the religious school, became so enthusiastic that he asked the rabbi to come to his office the next morning and he would give him one thousand dollars for Religious School Work in memory of his wife Fannie Schwartz. With this sum the "FANNIE SCHWARTZ FOUNDATION" was created, the interest of which is to be used for the religious school and for temple activities. To this sum there has been added two hundred dollars that some friends contributed in memory of little Joseph Strelitz. It is the hope of the officers of the congregation that this Foundation will be added to year by year, by the members, in time of joy or of sorrow and that eventually it will become a sustaining fund for various temple activities. At present the interest is used for the purchase of prizes for religious school activities.

Throughout this story nothing has been said about the election of a rabbi, a mooted question in most congregations, not because it was not a matter brought before the people, but because of its happy solution. The early years were years of adjustment, when the congregation had to adjust itself to the ideals of its leader and the rabbi had to adjust himself to the financial possibilities of the congregation. Once this was established all went well. Perhaps it can best be illustrated by the fact that the rabbi was elected for terms of five years, after the constitution had been amended permitting this; that on April 5, 1925, he was elected for this period and the secretary was instructed to cast the vote for the same and on April 10, 1927, upon motion he was elected for life "which motion was unanimously carried by a rising vote." With this spirit of cooperation prevailing, one need not wonder at what the temple has accomplished and present results are only promises of a still greater future.

Nor has this story done justice to the splendid work of the Ladies Temple Aid Society (now the Temple Sisterhood). To begin to enumerate the fine work that they have done would take more pages than this volume contains; to cite the numerable in- stances where their energy has helped solve a difficult problem would be proclaiming in public what they prefer to keep within the family circle. They are like the mothers in the home, quietly preparing their tasks with a deep love, asking for no recognition, and rejoicing, when the object of their love attains the desired result. And so no story of the Temple would be complete without this recognition of their aid. To mention the last effort-this book would never have been issued without their cooperation. Their committee called on every member and the results of their effort is this story in book form.

Nor has this story told of numerous efforts of Jewish interest, though not of specific congregational interest. El Paso, as a border city, had faced many problems. We said something about the work with soldiers, we would mention just one other effort, the control of the flow of Jewish immigrants from Europe, through Mexico into the United States. When the United States Government adopted a new immigration policy, some Jews tried to evade the law by coming via Mexico. It was Temple Mt. Sinai that sent its rabbi to New York to interest National Jewish Organizations in this problem and when these failed then he interested the B'nai Brith. The American Jew is law abiding; he will not be a party to fellow Jews evading the law and because of the stand he has induced the Jew, who came to Mexico, to stay in Mexico, with the result that we have flourishing Jewish communities in the making, in our neighbor republic. Besides this the El Paso Jewish community has assumed, these many years, the care of the immigrants who came to the border city, Juarez.

In conclusion I want to express my appreciation to those who have helped develop Jewish life in El Paso. Memory calls to mind those who have passed to the great beyond, who were mighty champions of the cause, while they were in our midst, "the memory of these righteous is a blessing." Memory also recalls the splendid work accomplished by those who are still with us. Some names stand out more boldly than others, but the rank and file have followed their leadership so that it would be wrong to mention a single name. What has been accomplished has been done by splendid cooperation; what will be accomplished in the future will result from strengthening the present efforts. We pray for long life to the leaders, that they may continue their task and train worthy Successors for the greater glory that is in store for Temple Mount Sinai.